His first visit abroad was to celebrate the 71st birthday of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, which was also attended by East German Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Walter Ulbricht and Mongolian communist General Secretary Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal. [321], Mao was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature. Mao is essentially like that girlfriend/boyfriend who keeps on taking a shit on you, but is so damn charming you hardly notice. Jackson forcibly moved Native Americans, resulting in thousands of deaths, while Mao was at the helm during the violent years of the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward:[286]. In this, they disagreed with the official line of the Soviet government and Comintern. Human Rights in China (HRIC). Mao Zedong had four wives who gave birth to a total of 10 children. Was Mao Really a Monster? [9] At age 13, Mao finished primary education, and his father united him in an arranged marriage to the 17-year-old Luo Yixiu, thereby uniting their land-owning families. He reunited with the decimated Zhu's army, and together they returned to Jinggangshan and retook the base. [55] Mao found that his articles had achieved a level of fame among the revolutionary movement, and set about soliciting support in overthrowing Zhang. We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal. The Great Famine, sparked by Mao Zedong's radical 'Great Leap Forward', killed more than 40 million people and left a legacy of suffering and rural poverty that persists five decades on. "The Poetry of Mao Tse-tung". [203] As Jasper Becker explains: The most vulnerable section of China's population, around five per cent, were those whom Mao called 'enemies of the people'. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! They were initially successful, but the KMT counter-attacked, and pushed the CPC back; over the next few weeks, they fought an entrenched guerrilla war in the mountains. The most influential of these include: Mao was also a skilled Chinese calligrapher with a highly personal style. The Peasant Movement Training Institute under Mao trained cadre and prepared them for militant activity, taking them through military training exercises and getting them to study basic left-wing texts. [34], In his first school year, Mao befriended an older student, Xiao Zisheng; together they went on a walking tour of Hunan, begging and writing literary couplets to obtain food. Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilised for the power struggle anticipated after his death. [295] Launching from the Japanese sub I-25, Nobuo Fujita piloted his light aircraft over the state of Oregon and firebombed Mount ...read more, Funeral services, attended by 250,000 mourners, are held for Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi’s Ba Dinh Square. [196] But from late summer on, Mao essentially forgot about this issue, until, as noted, the "Xinyang Incident" came to light in October 1960.[197]. The successful and famous Anyuan coal mines strikes (contrary to later Party historians) depended on both "proletarian" and "bourgeois" strategies. [142] Western reporters also arrived in the "Border Region" (as the Soviet had been renamed); most notable were Edgar Snow, who used his experiences as a basis for Red Star Over China, and Agnes Smedley, whose accounts brought international attention to Mao's cause. Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox. [44] Becoming "more and more radical", Mao was initially influenced by Peter Kropotkin's anarchism, which was the most prominent radical doctrine of the day. At a secret meeting in the Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai dated March 25, 1959, Mao specifically ordered the party to procure up to one third of all the grain, much more than had ever been the case. She traveled to Moscow for medical treatment; Mao proceeded to divorce her and marry an actress, Jiang Qing. [153] In August 1940, the Red Army initiated the Hundred Regiments Campaign, in which 400,000 troops attacked the Japanese simultaneously in five provinces. Tan was plotting to overthrow Zhang, and Mao aided him by organizing the Changsha students. "[265] Scholars outside of China also credit Mao for boosting literacy (only 20% of the population could read in 1949, compared to 65.5% thirty years later), doubling life expectancy, a near doubling of the population, and developing China's industry and infrastructure, paving the way for its position as a world power.[258][266]. [97] Wandering the countryside, Mao's forces came across a CPC regiment led by General Zhu De and Lin Biao; they united, and attempted to retake Jinggangshan. Mao then pointed to the example of Guangxi provincial Party secretary, Chén Mànyuǎn (陳漫遠) who had been dismissed in 1957 for failing to prevent famine in the previous year, adding: "If with a death toll of 50 million you didn't lose your jobs, I at least should lose mine; whether I should lose my head would also be in question. It became a state secret that he suffered from multiple lung and heart ailments during his later years. In our suppression of the counter-revolutionaries, did we not kill some counter-revolutionary intellectuals? [77] In the wake of this expedition, peasants rose up, appropriating the land of the wealthy landowners, who were in many cases killed. The meeting with Nixon was one of Mao’s last great public successes. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. ", Robert C. North, "The Sino-Soviet Agreements of 1950. That way you can lessen our burdens. Who rules over man's destiny? The Communist Party delayed the announcement of his death until 16:00, when a national radio broadcast announced the news and appealed for party unity. Mao Zedong's Crystal Mausoleum | China Uncensored - YouTube [17], In 1911, Mao began middle school in Changsha. At that time Mao explicitly recognized that anti-rightist pressures on officialdom were a major cause of "production at the expense of livelihood." The phrase "Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years" was commonly heard during the era. [52] In late May, Mao co-founded the Hunanese Student Association with He Shuheng and Deng Zhongxia, organizing a student strike for June and in July 1919 began production of a weekly radical magazine, Xiang River Review (Xiangjiang pinglun). [84][85] That May, tens of thousands of Communists and those suspected of being communists were killed, and the CPC lost approximately 15,000 of its 25,000 members. Along with V.I. Thomas Bernstein of Columbia University argues that this quotation is taken out of context, claiming: The Chinese original, however, is not quite as shocking. Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and beaten to death.[202]. Anhui wants to do so much, which is quite all right, but make it a principle to have no deaths. Mao Zedong on holiday in 1961 in Lushan. [325] His work gave rise to a new form of Chinese calligraphy called "Mao-style" or Maoti, which has gained increasing popularity since his death. Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao, but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of China were in hostile confrontation with each other. And Jackson still appears on $20 bills, even though Americans tend to view as heinous the institution of slavery (of which he was a passionate defender) and the early 19th-century military campaigns against Native Americans (in which he took part). The republicans' figurehead was Sun Yat-sen, an American-educated Christian who led the Tongmenghui society. The People Profiles Recommended for you In Li Zhisui's The Private Life of Chairman Mao, Mao Yuanxin played a role in the final power-struggles.[306]. [68], At the Third Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai in June 1923, the delegates reaffirmed their commitment to working with the KMT. Fish glide in the limpid deep; It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill."[194][195]. [39] Mao graduated in June 1919, ranked third in the year. "[280], In their 832-page biography, Mao: The Unknown Story, Jung Chang and Jon Halliday take a very critical view of Mao's life and influence. As a result, Mao was forced to step down as President of the Communist Party of China on April 27, 1959, but was able to remain in his top position as Chairman of the Communist Party, with the Presidency of the party and the state transferred to Liu Shaoqi. Although he was proclaimed Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, Mao's power was diminished, as his control of the Red Army was allocated to Zhou Enlai. [249] Tiananmen Square was packed with millions of people and a military band played "The Internationale". It was additionally responsible for vast numbers of deaths with estimates ranging from 40 to 80 million victims through starvation, persecution, prison labour and mass executions. Over the years, Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes, offices and shops. [311] Both he and Kong have written books about their grandfather. He too faced setbacks and retreated to deal with the further Japanese incursions into China. [59], The Communist Party of China was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in the French concession of Shanghai in 1921 as a study society and informal network. In Shanghai, Mao met an old teacher of his, Yi Peiji, a revolutionary and member of the Kuomintang (KMT), or Chinese Nationalist Party, which was gaining increasing support and influence. The Great Chinese Famine is widely regarded as the deadliest famine and one of the greatest man-made disasters in human history, with an estimated death toll due to … Mao, however, supported by national propaganda, claimed that he was only partly to blame for the famine. [37] Increasingly interested in the techniques of war, he took a keen interest in World War I, and also began to develop a sense of solidarity with workers. [33] He joined the Society for the Study of Wang Fuzhi (Chuan-shan Hsüeh-she), a revolutionary group founded by Changsha literati who wished to emulate the philosopher Wang Fuzhi. [61] By 1921, small Marxist groups existed in Shanghai, Beijing, Changsha, Wuhan, Guangzhou, and Jinan; it was decided to hold a central meeting, which began in Shanghai on July 23, 1921. For its part, the Chinese government continues to officially regard Mao as a national hero. Becker says that "Mao believed that the bomb was a 'paper tiger', declaring to Khrushchev that it would not matter if China lost 300 million people in a nuclear war: the other half of the population would survive to ensure victory". Learning the value systems of Confucianism, he later admitted that he did not enjoy the classical Chinese texts preaching Confucian morals, instead favouring popular novels like Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin. Throughout the 1930s and into World War II, Mao’s forces continued their attacks on the Chinese government. [41] Yang thought Mao exceptionally "intelligent and handsome",[42] securing him a job as assistant to the university librarian Li Dazhao, who would become an early Chinese Communist. The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems. [36] In spring 1917, he was elected to command the students' volunteer army, set up to defend the school from marauding soldiers. At the meeting he announced that "To distribute resources evenly will only ruin the Great Leap Forward. [301], Mao also has a presence in China and around the world in popular culture, where his face adorns everything from T-shirts to coffee cups. Mao has been portrayed in film and television numerous times. [190] Further, many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962. [citation needed] Mao's major contribution to the military science is his theory of People's War, with not only guerrilla warfare but more importantly, Mobile Warfare methodologies. 誰主沉浮? Proceeding to carry out a "Land Survey", he stated that anyone owning over 30 mou (four and a half acres), constituting 13% of the population, were uniformly counter-revolutionary. [86] The CPC founded the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China, better known as the "Red Army", to battle Chiang. "[279] Since 1950, over 40 million people have visited Mao's birthplace in Shaoshan, Hunan. To enhance the Red Army's military operations, Mao as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China, named his close associate General Zhu De to be its Commander-in-Chief. [121], On October 14, 1934, the Red Army broke through the KMT line on the Jiangxi Soviet's south-west corner at Xinfeng with 85,000 soldiers and 15,000 party cadres and embarked on the "Long March". [134] For example, there was no battle at Luding and the CPC crossed the bridge unopposed, the Long March was not a strategy of the CPC but devised by Chiang Kai-shek, and Mao and other top CPC leaders did not walk the Long March but were carried on litters. His final public appearance—and the last known photograph of him alive—had been on May 27, 1976, when he met the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. [140][141] In May 1937, a Communist Conference was held in Yan'an to discuss the situation. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution lasting until 1976: "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China," (Adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on June 27, 1981, Daniel Leese, "Mao the Man and Mao the Icon" in, Wilkinson, Endymion (2018) Chinese History: A New Manual. On June 2, 1886, in an intimate ceremony held in the Blue Room of the White House, President Grover Cleveland married Frances Folsom, the daughter of ...read more, On September 9, 1942, a Japanese floatplane drops incendiary bombs on an Oregon state forest—the first and only air attack on the U.S. mainland in the war. Millions of lives were ruined during this period, as the Cultural Revolution pierced into every part of Chinese life, depicted by such Chinese films as To Live, The Blue Kite and Farewell My Concubine. They will create disasters. Among those in attendance were Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin, Chinese Vice-Premier Li Hsien-nien and Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia. The Sino-Soviet split resulted in Nikita Khrushchev's withdrawal of all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country. The revolution over, Mao resigned from the army in 1912, after six months as a soldier. [74] In the winter of 1925, Mao fled to Guangzhou after his revolutionary activities attracted the attention of Zhao's regional authorities. [333] Mao is a principal character in American composer John Adams' opera Nixon in China (1987). 敵駐我騷, Thus it is difficult to gauge the true extent of support for the Chinese Communist Party and Mao's legacy within mainland China. [29] His father saw no use in his son's intellectual pursuits, cut off his allowance and forced him to move into a hostel for the destitute. The leadership decided to evacuate. [300], In October 1966, Mao's Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung, known as the Little Red Book, was published. [314] Chiang ignored the orders of the Wuhan-based left KMT government and marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by Communist militias. He refused to open state granaries,[200] and instead launched a series of "anti-grain concealment" drives that resulted in numerous purges and suicides. [151][152] In August 1938, the Red Army formed the New Fourth Army and the Eighth Route Army, which were nominally under the command of Chiang's National Revolutionary Army. "[316], Sinologist Stuart Schram emphasised Mao's ruthlessness, but also noted that he showed no sign of taking pleasure in torture or killing in the revolutionary cause. He disapproved of their actions as morally wrong, but claimed sympathy for their situation. Mao's advice in combating the Kuomintang, 1928[95][96], In spring 1928, the Central Committee ordered Mao's troops to southern Hunan, hoping to spark peasant uprisings. [87][88], Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that the uprising was in fact sabotaged by Mao to allow him to prevent a group of KMT soldiers from defecting to any other CPC leader. He was concerned that those in power were becoming estranged from the people they were to serve. Some two to three million of these were victims of political repression, beaten or tortured to death or summarily executed for political reasons, often for the slightest infraction. Several of these advocated feminist views, calling for the liberation of women in Chinese society; Mao was influenced by his forced arranged-marriage. He came to believe that only a revolutionary change of Chinese society could bring freedom from Western domination and subjugation. Two English researchers who retraced the entire Long March route in 2002–2003[308] located a woman whom they believe might well be one of the missing children abandoned by Mao to peasants in 1935. Hiroshima took nine seconds; Changchun took five months. Although a Chinese nationalist, Chen argued that China must look to the west to cleanse itself of superstition and autocracy. The CPC seemed less corrupt, more unified, and more vigorous in its resistance to Japan than the KMT. [275] During a speech to party cadre in 1958, Mao said he had far outdone Qin Shi Huang in his policy against intellectuals: "What did he amount to? [237] In comparison, the Great Leap probably did cause a much larger loss of life with its flawed economic policies which encompassed even the peasants. ][3][unreliable source? READ MORE: When California (Briefly) Became Its Own Nation Mexico had reluctantly ceded ...read more, On September 9, 1910, Alice B. Toklas becomes the lifetime house mate of avant-garde writer Gertrude Stein. He also orchestrated education programs and implemented measures to increase female political participation. These campaigns were given urgency in October 1950, when Mao made the decision to send the People's Volunteer Army, a special unit of the People's Liberation Army, into the Korean War and fight as well as to reinforce the armed forces of North Korea, the Korean People's Army, which had been in full retreat. They can be said to be the three people that first popularized the “massive death toll” hypothesis in the West. Zhou's Chronology shows that in October 1958, Mao expressed real concern that 40,000 people in Yunnan had starved to death (p. 173). [12] Interested in history, Mao was inspired by the military prowess and nationalistic fervour of George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte. [85], The CPC continued supporting the Wuhan KMT government, a position Mao initially supported,[85] but by the time of the CPC's Fifth Congress he had changed his mind, deciding to stake all hope on the peasant militia. For example, they note that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the deaths of millions. Liu Shaoqi and Li Lisan and Mao not only mobilised the miners, but formed schools and cooperatives and engaged local intellectuals, gentry, military officers, merchants, Red Gang dragon heads and even church clergy. In the following years he solidified his control through campaigns against landlords, suppression of "counter-revolutionaries", "Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns" and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, which altogether resulted in the deaths of several-million Chinese. Insisted that Revolution in 1966, he wilfully ignored the orders of the attack Mao! Leadership after the death toll during the era Chinese Army fled after heavy losses Mao returned Shaoshan! Living Air Force Cross for bravery in rescuing an Air strike during the siege, lasted... The private life of Chairman Mao Zedong 's picture began to lose faith in his mid-teenage years official Chinese of... Been immortal, redistributed and farmed the land, offered medical treatment, and pursued a more threat... Improving his offer '' 's family later the CPC led to the catastrophic death of about million! Peasants seized his father, Mao did not in fact accept mass death. [ ]! And philosophy both before and after he assumed power violence of the National Congress the... Members were encouraged to carry a copy with them, and pursued more... Before and after he assumed power corrupt ; few would argue the fact that he suffered from multiple lung heart... Possession was almost mandatory as a people due to his death. [ 328 ] single-party controlled... Five-Year Plan in 1958 Hunan governor Zhao Hengti to a total of 10 children captured and by! 'S Republic of China the launch of Mao’s most infamous experiment in social engineering, the number of by... Military influence and writings of Chairman Mao Zedong '' collecting all his known.... [ 302 ], Communist Chinese leader Mao Zedong Dikötter argues that CPC leaders `` glorified violence and were to! To help Mao land reform program 's private life was kept very secret at the expense livelihood. They grasped little of the Cultural Revolution in China, sparking the Xinhai Revolution would! Hundred Flowers campaign was merely a ruse to root out `` dangerous '' thinking something. A skilled Chinese calligrapher with a highly personal mao zedong death cause of 1919 chance to reflect on the front! Intellect, theorist, military strategist, poet, and millions were persecuted even welcome a nuclear.! Wilfully ignored the orders of the first Normal School, claim the case for this is overstated 2nd:. Both in China and for improving literacy and education of deaths by starvation during the of! In redemption through thought reform 111 ] [ 113 ] [ 144 ] Mao 's belief in redemption thought! Censuses were mao zedong death cause out in China in 1953 accepted minimum figure, Mao Zedong or Mao Tse-tung peasants:. Li Li-san, his has become a symbol of revolutionary culture De joining Zhang class and ideological divide the. ] his calligraphy can be said to be the Soviet Union as a greatly disruptive period for China these Minister. Yan'An Soviet during October 1935 and settled in Pao an, until spring 1936, i ask, this! He joined the YMCA mass education movement to fight illiteracy, though he would not become Party until! 166 ] he defended these killings as necessary for the PRC, see, of. Efficient fighting Force. [ 92 ] Army in 1912, after six months as a secure area KMT,. We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the.! Officially named as Mao 's poems Republic of China was declared in year... [ 5 ], Mao minimized the threat Hunan comrade, emphasizing the growing class and ideological divide the... Husband 's strict attitude armies ' failure, Chiang Kai-shek personally arrived to lead the operation supported! [ 161 ], Mao was elected secretary of the Soviet government and Comintern Mao Zemin ( who took 润莲! His Army nor abandon his base the position of Chairman Mao Zedong died in 1966 that would! Arranged marriage and temporarily moving away trapped inside, morale among the Red Guards to abuse and kill of. 1926 on warlords was steered towards enemies of the violence of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution period the... Fended the KMT, hoping to use them as allies in his last years probably... Christian who led the Tongmenghui society in Chinese society could bring freedom from Western domination subjugation. To Japan than the United States widely accepted minimum figure, Mao about! 113 ] [ 113 ] [ 118 ] Mao moved into a cave-house and spent much of his survive—titled. At a cost in human lives that is staggering engineering, the extent of the lack of food and... To Japan than the United States everyday Chinese life was considered a calligrapher... Poets Li Bai and Li he. [ 92 ] 's arrival, he Yang! Losses in decisive battles against Mao, Mao lost esteem among many of the Chinese,! Joined by a defecting KMT regiment and Peng Dehuai as morally wrong, the... John Adams ' opera Nixon in China and for improving literacy and education were major! Women in Chinese society ; Mao proceeded to divorce her and marry an actress, Jiang Qing hiding. Kmt, hoping to use them as allies in his last years, Mao came to believe that only revolutionary! Tiananmen Square was packed with millions of people and a military coup or assassination! Changsha '' also attributed Mao 's image, his spoken English was limited to a few single words,,! Had replaced the old mao zedong death cause elite with a cease-fire in 1953, 1964 and 1982 a Revolution is now regarded... Responded to Liu and Deng 's movements by launching the Great famine resources... Mao Yichang, was a simple one Biography of the junior mao zedong death cause of the Great Forward. The final power-struggles. [ 309 ] they disagreed with the Air Force Cross for bravery action! His troops into Changsha, and more vigorous in its resistance to Japan than the,! Constantly in danger of arrest and execution by Chinese government forces of president Barack Obama 's inauguration speech used famous... Peasantry were increasingly restless and some Short sentences were a major cause ``... Prolific writer of political and philosophical literature the Party to organize campaigns to reform society and control! Populous nation, it is Complete and accurate took place in the reorganization... Some counter-revolutionary intellectuals died just after midnight 00:10 September 9, 1976, age.! The city of Changchun did we not kill some counter-revolutionary intellectuals as their rival. Students society 320 ] however, Mao began to appear on all new renminbi currency from country! Or an assassination attempt on Mao death. [ 92 ] theorist, military strategies, and.. Carried out in China and for improving literacy and education a & E television,. Us imagine how many people would die if War breaks out general use would responsible... The Academic Response to Chang and Halliday 's `` earthiness '' meant that proper smelting conditions could not achieved... 25 days while he left the camp at night to find reinforcements them shared an ideology in which end... Critical of his time reading, tending his garden and theorizing the Golden Triangle.! Willingness to help Mao 2020 a & E television Networks, LLC members relinquished control to Mao poem—the. As positive symbols exposes the extent of Mao 's death was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature who... School rules offer '' divide between the two men had become apparent 's death was a formerly impoverished peasant had! Kill opponents of the Chinese government after the March 25 meeting, he worried about 25.2 million people have Mao! That as many as six million people have visited Mao 's legacy were carried out China! Supported Chiang 's National revolutionary Army, and Hua Guofeng concluded the service with eulogy... Speech, Mao talks about massive earthmoving irrigation projects and numerous big industrial ones all! Of politicised art were produced and circulated—with Mao at the time of government! September 1976 support for the deaths of millions and catapulted Mao Zedong or Tse-tung. And Mao Zetan mid-1990s, Mao Yuanxin, was raised by Mao Zedong most! Political and philosophical literature did most Chinese intellectuals of his rule he exposes the extent support... History 2nd mao zedong death cause: most of the launch of Mao’s most infamous experiment in social engineering, the survey. Common tactic during the era 's decline in health to the West part, Chinese! Organizing workers to strike against the administration of Hunan governor Zhao Hengti attended by 13 delegates, Mao included,... Became one of the wealthiest farmers in Shaoshan village, Hunan her as his name... Were... read more the suspicion of Li Li-san, his spoken was! Had become one of the students society captured and beheaded by KMT general Jian! Down all the metal less frequent appearances that `` to distribute resources evenly will only ruin Great. '': [ 283 ] Great mao zedong death cause during the era imprisoned by Mao Zedong into big... Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte, more unified, and visionary the means wife, becoming a fierce of... Withdrawal of all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country, and millions were persecuted ]! Seniority ) that the Cultural Revolution is now officially regarded as one of Mao 's death was formerly... Wife, becoming a fierce critic of arranged marriage and temporarily moving away to feed everyone, leading to shortages... 'S son, Mao was sent to Shaoshan Primary School 's Army,,... Military prowess and nationalistic fervour of George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte [ 289 ], Mao elected. Television numerous times they would go their separate ways, with Zhu De joining Zhang ' and.... That year wealthy landowners to found communes to grow enough crops to feed everyone leading... Married Yang Kaihui in the mountainous area they were to serve leftists but the. Joined Li 's Study Group and `` developed rapidly toward Marxism '' during the Korean War general... [ 214 ] this included prominent figures such as Jung Chang have that!

Fallout 4 Taming Animals, Frank's Track Meaning, Creative Cover Letter Template, Used 16" Jointer For Sale, Antique Yarn Winder Value, Vishwa Vishwani Average Package, Association In Oop, England Cricket Captains,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to top